• Roy is considered the originator of the modern Indian Renaissance due to the extraordinary reforms he instituted in India during the 18th and 19th centuries.
  • He founded the Atmiya Sabha, which reformed into the Brahmo Sabha in 1828. This later evolved into the Brahmo Samaj, which united the Bhramos in Calcutta, a group of people who did not believe in idolatry and opposed caste restrictions.
  • During Lord Bentinck’s governorship of Bengal Province, Bengal Sati Regulation or Regulation XVII, A.D. 1829 of the Bengal Code was enacted.
  • In 1831, Akbar II, the second Mughal emperor, bestowed upon him the title “Raja.”
  • Tuhfat-ul-Muwahhidin or A Gift to Monotheists (1905), Vedanta (1815), Ishopanishad (1816), Kathopanishad (1817), Moonduk Upanishad (1819), The Precepts of Jesus – Guide to Peace and Happiness (1820), Sambad Kaumudi – a Bengali newspaper (1821), Mirat-ul-Akbar – a Persian journal (1822), Gaudiya Vyakaran (18 (1829).


  • He was likely the first person in India to systematically explain the concept of nationalism. His contribution was unique in that he conceptualized nationalism in indigenous terms.
  • Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was one of the first graduates of the British-founded Calcutta University.
  • Pramathanath Mitra was inspired by his novel Anushilan-Tattva to establish Anushilan Samiti.
  • Work: His famous novels include Kapalkundala (1866), Mrinalini (1869), Vishbriksha (1873), Chandrasekhar (1877), Rajani (1877), Rajsimha (1881), and Devi Chaudhurani (1884). Anand Math was the most renowned novel by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee (1882). The song “Bande Mataram” from Anand Math was subsequently adopted as India’s national anthem.


  • Pandita Ramabai (1858-1922) was one of modern India’s greatest ladies.
  • Ramabai, an outspoken advocate for women’s rights and social reform, was the only female representative in the male-dominated realm of gender reforms.
  • She received the titles of ‘Pandita’ (Scholar) and ‘Saraswati’ for her mastery of Sanskrit language and texts, which impressed the religious establishment of the city (Goddess of Learning).
  • She established the Arya Mahila Samaj in Poona in 1882 to mobilize women.
  • She published the Marathi book Stree Dharma Niti [Morals for Women] with the intention of advising defenseless and uneducated women.
  • In 1919, the British government awarded her the Kaiser-i-Hind medal.


  • E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker, commonly referred to as Periyar (Great Sage).
  • He criticized Hinduism as an opiate through which the Brahmins had numbed and subdued the populace.
  • Naicker participated in the Freedom Struggle headed by Congress for some time. He took part in the noncooperation movement, advocated satyagraha, and supported khadi.
  • Growing discontent with Gandhi and the Congress, which Naicker began to convey in 1925 in the journal Kudi Arasu, prompted him and his followers to establish the Self-Respect Association in 1926.
  • In 1925, he founded the “Self Respect Movement,” also known as the Dravidian Uplift.
  • He was a revolutionary social reformist. His determined campaign against Hindu orthodoxy, coupled with rationalism and social reform, reshaped Tamil Nadu’s social landscape.
  • Naicker was elected president of the Justice Party in 1938. Tamilnadu was to be a separate state, loyal to the British Raj and “directly under the Secretary of State for India,” according to a Party resolution.
  • In 1939, Naicker organized the “Dravida Nadu Conference” to advocate for an independent and separate Dravidasthan.
  • The Justice Party was reorganized in 1944 as Dravida Kazagham (DK).
  • Publications: “Kudi Arasu” (1925), “Revolt” (1928), “Family Planning” (1930), “Puratchi” (1933), the Tamil weekly “Pagutharivu” (1934), and “Ponmozhigal” (Golden Sayings) (1950).

5. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar

  • Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar was the most effective advocate for human rights.
  • He advocated for widow remarriage, education for all, and assistance for the destitute and deserving.
  • Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar served the cause of women by promoting females’ education. He was also in favor of widow remarriage.
  • The Hindu Widows’ Remarriage Act, 1856 was enacted as a direct result of Lord Dalhousie’s constant opposition.
  • He condemned the Bhakti philosophy advocated by one of his contemporaries, Ram Krishna Paramhans.
  • He is regarded as “the Progenitor of Bengali prose.”
  • Betaal Panchabinsati (1847); Jeebancharit (1850); Bodhadoy (1851); BornoPorichoy (1854); Sitar Bonabash (1860).
  • He was affiliated with notable journalistic publications such as “Tattwabodhini Patrika,” “Somprakash,” “Sarbashubhankari Patrika,” and “Hindu Patriot.”

6. Balshastri Jambhekar

  • Jambhekar was the pioneer of the Maharashtra intellectual movement. In the early 1830s, he set its foundations through his numerous writings.
  • Bal Shastri Jambhekar published the Marathi-English fortnightly Darpan in Maharashtra in 1832. The purpose of the newspaper was to enlighten the public about events in the social, political, and cultural spheres and to offer suggestions for the advancement of society.
  • The weekly was renamed United Service Gazette-Journal after eight years. It ceased publication in 1848, two years after Jambhekar’s demise in 1846.
  • Jambhekar launched the first Marathi monthly, Digdarshan, in 1840 and edited it for five years.
  • Jambhekar, regarded as the ‘Father of Marathi Journalism,’1 educated a large number of journalists who went on to achieve tremendous success in the Marathi field.
  • After effectively publishing Mumbai Darpan, Bal Shastri Jambhekar persuaded his friend Vittal Kunte alias Bhau Mahajan to publish the Marathi weekly Prabhakor in 1841.

7. Jyotiba or Jyotirao Phule

  • Jyotirao Govindrao Phule organized the Sathyashodhak Samaj to aid oppressed castes in Maharashtra.
  • Phule began his work as a social reformist concerned with educating boys and girls from low castes in 1848.
  • In 1851, he established two more schools for girls. In 1852, the Board of Education honoured his contributions to females’ education. In 1852, Phule founded a school for untouchables and a night school.
  • In 1873, he founded Satya Shodhak Samaj to organize the lower castes against the varna- and caste-based Hindu social order.
  • In 1877, one of his associates founded the Movement’s first newspaper, Din Bandhu.
  • In 1876, the government appointed him to the Poona Municipality.
  • In 1888, the citizens of Bombay bestowed upon him the honorific “Mahatma.”
  • Writings and Publications: Brahmanache Kasab(1869), Gulamgiri (1873), and the 1891 publication of Sarvajanik Satyadharma Pustak (A Book of True Religion for All).

8. Acharya Vinoba Bhave

  • Mohandas K. (Mahatma) Gandhi’s most revered disciple and one of India’s most prominent social reformers.
  • Creator of the Bhoodan Yajna (“Land-Gift Movement”).
  • Participated in non-cooperation programs, most notably the call to use Swadeshi goods instead of imports.
  • In 1940, Gandhi selected him to be the first Individual Satyagrahi (an individual who stands up for the truth as opposed to a group) against the British Raj.
  • He was given the prestigious title of Acharya (“teacher”).
  • He adopted the term Sarvodaya from Gandhi, which means “Progress for All”.
  • In the 1950s, the Sarvodaya movement led by him implemented numerous programs, the most notable of which was the Bhoodan (Land Gift) Movement in Telangana’s Pochampalli village.
  • In 1923, he published the Marathi-language monthly ‘Maharashtra Dharma’, including his Upanishads essays.
  • In 1959, Brahma Vidya Mandir, a small women’s community, was founded to achieve self-sufficiency following the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi.
  • Work: Swarajya Sastra, Geeta Pravachane, Teesri Shakti, and The Third Power, among others.

9. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

  • He emerged on the Indian scene as one of the Muslim community’s most significant reformers, educators, and modernizers.
  • Syed Ahmed Khan, the founder of the Aligarh Movement, sought to end the enmity between Muslims and the British government.
  • In addition, he desired a correct interpretation of Islam and modern education for Muslims. Finally, he endeavoured to foster Hindu-Muslim unity and prepared Muslims to face the upcoming challenge.
  • Sir Syed dedicated his entire life to fostering peace between the British and Muslims.
  • In 1863, he established the Scientific Society in Ghazipur, Uttar Pradesh. The fundamental purpose was to translate scientific literature into Urdu.
  • In 1875/ 1877, he founded Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental (MAO) College. In addition to receiving modern education, it was proposed that Muslims also receive training to preserve their cultural heritage.
  • In contrast, he argued that Hindu and Muslim communities would have distinct political options. This was the impetus behind his contention that the Indian National Congress was not in the best interests of the Muslim community.
  • Publications and compositions: He produced the monumental work Asar-us Sanadeedd, which describes the monuments of Delhi. His writings also include Tmikh-i-Sarkashiye Bijnor, a narrative detailing the Revolt’s progression. However, his 1858 publication of Asbab-iBaghawat-i-Hindu was more significant. India’s Loyal Mohammedans in 1860. In 1866, Sir Syed established the Indian Institute Gazette on behalf of the Society. In 1888 and 1889, a magazine titled Tahzib-ul Akhlaq was published.


  • Tilak is also referred as the ‘ Father of Indian Unrest.’
  • Bal Gangadhar Tilak, also known as Lokamanya Tilak, was an extremist leader of the Indian independence movement.
  • In 1890, Tilak joined the Congress. He opposed moderate ways and perspectives and took a more radical and aggressive stance against British rule.
  • Tilak was one of the earliest proponents of Swaraj, or self-government. He proclaimed, “Swaraj is my birthright, and I shall have it.”
  • Together with Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai, he was referred to as the ‘Lal-Bal-Pal’ trio of extremist leaders.
  • In 1876, he and Gopal Ganesh Agarkar founded the New English School in Pune and began their educator careers.
  • He published two newspapers: the Marathi-language Kesari and the English-language Mahratta.
  • The Deccan Education Society was founded in 1885 to establish the Ferguson College, which was later named after the then-Governor of Bombay.
  • In addition to Annie Besant and G S Khaparde, he was one of the founders of the All India Home Rule League.
  • He utilized the Ganesh Chaturthi and Shiv Jayanti (the birthday of Shivaji) festivals to foster national unity and pride among the populace.
  • Tilak initiated the Swadeshi movement in India, and he and Jamshedji Tata founded Bombay Swadeshi Stores to promote it.
  • Between 1908 and 1914, he spent six years in Mandalay prison for writing articles defending Prafulla Chaki and Khudiram Bose.
  • “Orion: Studies in the Antiquity of Ved”, “The Arctic Home of Veds”, and “Giro-Rohasya” are works of literature.
  • In 1881, he founded the English-language ‘Maratha’ and the Marathi ‘Kesari’ weekly newspapers.

11.Lala Lajpat Rai

  • He was also known as ‘Punjab Kesari’ or ‘Lion of Punjab,’ was an exceptional leader, statesman, historian, educator, distinguished editor, ardent social and religious reformer, and an eloquent orator.
  • He played a significant role in establishing the traditions of constructive criticism of government policies.
  • Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and Bipin Chandra Pal formed the trinity of militant leaders.
  • He actively advocated for Swadeshi and spread the message of independence in India and abroad.
  • He founded the Society of People’s Servants, which performed commendable work in numerous fields.
  • 1920 saw his election as president of the Indian National Congress.
  • He was later affiliated with the Swarai Party. 
  • Lala Lajpat Rai died a martyr in Lahore while leading a protest against the Simon Commission.
  • James A. Scott, the superintendent of police, ordered the police to lathi-charge the protesters and assaulted Rai himself.
  • The Story of My Deportation (1908), Arya Samaj (1915), The United States of America: A Hindu’s Impressions (1916), Young India (1916), and England’s Debt to India: India (1917) are examples of his published works.

12.Bhagat Singh

  • The character of Indian Revolutionaries in the third decade of the 20th century is exemplified by Bhagat Singh.
  • His rejection of Gandhian philosophy of non-violence, his antipathy towards the reformist attitude of the Congress, his belief in Marxist Communism, his atheism, his belief in terrorism as a means to uphold the dignity of a suppressed and humiliated people, and his claim of revolution as a birthright were all characteristic of Indian youth in the 1920s and 1930s.
  • In the beginning, he was a supporter of Mahatma Gandhi and the Non-Cooperation Movement.
  • However, when Gandhi retreated from the movement following the Chauri Chaura incident, Bhagat Singh turned to revolutionary nationalism.
  • The Jallianwala Bagh massacre (1919) and the Nankana Sahib violence (1921) against unarmed Akali protestors profoundly affected him.
  • He founded the Naujawan Bharat Sabha in 1926. This organization sought to promote revolution against British rule by rallying the peasants and labourers.
  • Together with Sukhdev, Chandrashekhar Azad, and others, he co-founded the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) in 1928.
  • On April 8, 1929, Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb from the Visitors’ Gallery into the Delhi Central Assembly.
  • Along with Rajguru, Sukhdev, and others, Bhagat Singh was arrested and indicted in the Saunders murder case. This proceeding began in July 1929.
  • The three were sentenced to be hanged on March 24, 1931, but the execution took place a day earlier at the Lahore Jail. Following their execution, their remains were cremated in secret.
  • The 23rd of March is observed as ‘Martyrs’ Day’ or ‘Shaheed Diwas’ or ‘Sarvodaya Day’ in memory of Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, and Sukhdev.
  • Some of his works are Why I Am an Atheist: An Autobiographical Discourse, The Jail Notebook and Other Writings, and Ideas of a Nation.

13.Ashafaqulla Khan

  • Ashfaqulla Khan (1900–1927) was an Indian independence movement freedom fighter. He was born in Uttar Pradesh’s Shahjahanpur.
  • In 1922, following the Chauri Chaura incident, Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw his call for this movement.
  • Bismil and Khan went on to found the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) in the mid-1920s to achieve national independence through armed revolution.
  • In the realm of politics, the immediate objective of the revolutionary party was to establish federal Republic of the United States of India with an organized and armed revolution.
  • In August 1925, an armed robbery occurred aboard the Shahjahanpur-to-Lucknow-bound Kakori Express with the intention of funding HSRA’s activities.
  • The robbery trial concluded in April 1927, with Bismil, Khan, Rajendra Lahiri, and Roshan Singh receiving death sentences and the remaining defendants receiving life sentences.
  • He was executed by hanging on December 19, 1927, at the Faizabad jail.

14.Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan

  • Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan was born as a Pashtoon in the Pakistani city of Utmanzai in the northwest in 1890.
  • He was also referred to as Bacha Khan. However, due to his adherence to pacifism and close relationship with Mahatma Gandhi, he was dubbed “Frontier Gandhi.”
  • Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan and his followers, the Khudai Khidmatgars, also known as “Red Shirts” (Surkh Posh), initiated nonviolent civil disobedience in the North West Frontier Province.
  • Approximately 100,000 Muslims joined his “Khudai Khidmatgar” or “Servers of Allah” movement.
  • On 21 June 1947, a loya jirga (grand assembly in Pashtun) comprised of Bacha Khan, the Khudai Khidmatgars, and Provincial Assembly members was held in Bannu.
  • In this jirga, the Bannu Resolution was passed, stating that the Pashtun People should be allowed to form an independent state of Pasthunistan from all Pashtun territories in British India.
  • The British refused even to consider this request because the portion plan would be severely jeopardized if territories were granted based on ethnicity.
  • On 8 May 1948, Bacha Khan founded Pakistan’s first national opposition party: the Pakistan Azad Party. The opposition would be constructive and ideologically noncommunal.

15. Mahatma Gandhi

  • Gandhi is known by various names, including Mahatma (a great soul), Bapuji (a Gujarati term for father), and Father of the Nation.
  • On January 9, 1915, Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa, a date commemorated as Pravasi Bharatiya Diwas (PBD).
  • In 1916, he organized the first satyagraha at Chmaparan, followed by the Kheda and Ahmedabad satyagrahas in 1917 and 1918, respectively.
  • Following the Chauri-Chaura incident, he retracted the Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-22).
  • By disobeying the salt law, he initiated the Salt March on 12 March 1930 and the Civil Disobedience Movement on 6 April 1930.
  • The Poona Pact was signed in 1932 by Gandhi and Ambedkar. In 1942, Gandhi initiated the Quit India Movement.
  • The International Day of Nonviolence is observed on October 2, Mahatma Gandhi’s birthday.
  • In a resolution adopted on 5 June 2007, the General Assembly established International Day as an opportunity to spread the message of nonviolence through education and public awareness.
  • He managed four publications, including Indian Opinion, Young India, Navajivan, and Harijan; he also authored the books Hind Swaraj and My Experiments with Truth (Autobiography).

16. Jawaharlal Nehru

  • Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru was born on November 14, 1889, in Allabahad.
  • In 1912, he was a delegate to the Bankipore Congress, and in 1919 he was appointed Secretary of the Home Rule League in Allahabad.
  • In 1920, he organized the first Kisan March in Uttar Pradesh’s Pratapgarh District. As a result, he was incarcerated twice in connection with the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1920-1922.
  • Pte. Nehru, in September 1923, became the General Secretary of the All India Congress Committee.
  • He attended the All-Party Congress on August 29, 1928, and was one of the signatories of the Nehru Report on Indian Constitutional Reform was named after his father, Shri Motilal Nehru.
  • In the same year, he also founded and became the General Secretary of the “Independence for India League,” which advocated severing all British ties with India.
  • Pt. Nehru, in 1929, was elected President of the Lahore Session of the Indian National Congress: the country’s total independence was adopted as the objective.
  • During 1930-1935, he was imprisoned multiple times in connection with the Salt Satyagraha and other Congress-led movements.
  • On February 14, 1935, he completed his ‘Autobiography’ in Almora Jail.
  • On August 7, 1942, at the A.I.C.C. session in Bombay, Pt. Nehru introduced the historic ‘Quit India’ resolution.
  • He was arrested on August 8, 1942, and taken to Ahmednagar Fort with other leaders. This was his longest and final suspension.
  • On July 6, 1946, he was elected President of the Congress for the fourth time, followed by three more terms from 1951 to 1954.

17. Subhash Chandra Bose

  • Subhas Chandra Bose, also known as Netaji, a prominent leaders of the Indian independence movement.
  • He founded the Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj) to overthrow the British Empire in India and became legendary among the Indian populace.
  • In order to compete for Indian Civil Services in 1919, he took the Indian Civil Services competitive examination in England in 1920 and placed fourth in merit. However, Subhas Chandra Bose was profoundly disturbed by the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, and he left his apprenticeship in the Civil Services in 1921 to return to India.
  • On Gandhiji’s advice, he began working for Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das, whom he acknowledged as his political mentor.
  • The Congress appointed the Motilal Nehru Committee in 1928. It declared its support for Domination Status, whereas Subhas Chandra Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru opposed it, stating that they would accept nothing less than India’s complete independence.
  • Additionally, Subhas declared the formation of the Independence League.
  • In 1930, Subhas Chandra Bose was imprisoned during the Civil Disobedience Movement. However, following the signing of the Gandhi-Irwin pact in 1931, he was released.
  • He opposed the Gandhi-Irwin pact and the suspension of the Civil Disobedience movement, particularly after Bhagat Singh and his associates were executed.
  • 1938 saw his election as president of the Haripura Congress Session.
  • In 1939, Subhas Chandra Bose was re-elected after defeating Dr Pattabhi Sitaramayya, who had received the support of Mahatma Gandhi and the Congress Working Committee.
  • In January 1941, Subhas Chandra Bose vanished from his home in Calcutta and travelled through Afghanistan to reach Germany.
  • In January of 1942, he began his regular broadcasts from Radio Berlin, which sparked great interest in India. He arrived in Singapore from Germany in July 1943.
  • On August 18, 1945, Subhas Chandra Bose was reportedly killed in a plane crash over Taipeh, Taiwan (Formosa).

18. B. R Ambedkar

  • Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar, a fighter for the abolition of caste, was born on 14 April 1891 into a low-caste Mahar family.
  • His life was marked by adversity, as his radical proposals to reform the Caste System were met with open hostility by the Upper Castes.
  • He considered reserving seats for Dalits and other religious outcasts.
  • Dr Ambedkar and Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya, representatives of the Hindu Brahmins, signed the Poona Pact in 1932, relinquishing the reservation of seats for the untouchable classes in the Provisional legislatures among the general electorate. Later, these classes and tribes were designated Scheduled Classes and Scheduled Tribes, respectively.
  • Ambedkar founded the Independent Labor Party in 1936. His party won 15 seats in the 1937 elections for the Central Legislative Assembly.
  • After returning from Sri Lanka, he decided to become a Buddhist.
  • In 1990, he was awarded with India’s highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna, posthumously.
  • Publications: The Annihilation of Caste, Essays on Untouchables and Untouchability, Waiting for a Visa; founded “Mooknayaka” (leader of the silent) newspaper in 1920; “The Buddha and His Dhamma” and “The Buddha or Karl Marx”.

19. Sarojini Naidu

  • Sarojini Naidu (born 13′ February 1879) joined the Indian nationalist movement and became a devotee of Mahatma Gandhi and his Swaraj philosophy.
  • As a participant in the 1930 Salt March, she was arrested alongside other Congress leaders, including Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, and Madan Mohan Malaviya.
  • Sarojini was among the most influential leaders of ‘the Quit India Movement’ and ‘the CDM’.
  • British authorities repeatedly arrested her, and she spent over 21 months (1 year and 9 months) in jail.
  • She was appointed Governor of the United Provinces in 1947, became first women to do so. Her appointment as President of the Indian National Congress came in 1925.
  • Work: As a poet she earned the nickname ‘The Nightingale of India’ or ‘Bharat Kokila’ given by Mahatma Gandhi due to her poetry’s imagery, colour, and lyrical quality. The 1912 publication ‘In the Bazaars of Hyderabad’ remains one of her most famous poems.

20. Bipin Chandra Pal

  • Bipin (known as the “Father of Revolutionary Thoughts in India”) was born in Poil, a village in the present-day Bangladeshi district of Habiganj.
  • The ideas of Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and Aurobindo Ghosh also influenced Pal.
  • He travelled to England in 1898 to study comparative theology. In one year, he returned to India and threw himself into the freedom struggle.
  • He began popularizing the concept of ‘Swaraj’ among Indians.
  • In 1886, he joined the Congress Party. In addition, he participated in the Swadeshi and noncooperation movements. He fought against the 1905 partition of Bengal.
  • His works include “Indian Nationalism,” “Swaraj and the Present Situation,” “Nationality and Empire,” “The Basis of Social Reform,” “The New Spirit and Studies in Hinduism,” and “The Soul of India.” In addition, he edited the publications ‘The Democrat and ‘The Independent’. He also founded numerous newspapers and periodicals, including “Paridarsak,” “Bande Mataram,” “New India,” and “Swaraj.”

21. C. Rajagopalachari

  • On December 10, 1878, Chakravarti Rajagopalachari, also known as Rajaji, was born.
  • He studied law at the Presidency College in Madras (now Chennai), and in 1900 he began practising in Salem.
  • In 1916, he established the Tamil Scientific Terms Society, an organization that translated chemistry, physics, mathematics, astronomy, and biology terms into simple Tamil.
  • In 1917, he was elected chairman of the Salem municipality and served for two years.
  • Rajaji was awarded the Bharat Ratna (India’s highest civilian honour) in 1955.
  • He became a legal advisor for the Indian National Congress after joining the organization.
  • In 1917, he defended the Indian independence activist P. Varadarajulu Naidu against sedition charges.
  • In 1937, he was elected the first premier of the Madras Presidency.
  • In 1939, Rajagopalachari issued the Madras Temple Entry Authorization and Indemnity Act to eliminate untouchability and caste prejudice.
  • After passing the Madras Temple Entry Authorisation, Dalits were permitted to enter temples.
  • He was appointed West Bengal’s governor at the time of Partition.
  • During the absence of Lord Mountbatten (the first Governor General of independent India and the last British viceroy) in 1947, Rajagopalachari was temporarily appointed to fill the position. Consequently, he was India’s final governor-general.
  • He was also involved in the anti-untouchability Vaikom Satyagraha movement.
  • Throughout the Quit India Movement, Rajagopalachari was Gandhi’s opponent.